Sunday, August 23, 2020
In spite of the fact that it can't be denied that cutting edge society is significantly materialistic, there is nothing naturally amiss with a general public that qualities the creation and utilization of material merchandise. Abundant chronicled proof proposes that social orders that degrade capital riches and material addition will be temperamental and brief. Realism Ã¢â¬ whatever esteem we place upon it Ã¢â¬ makes a stable cultural structure. Simply turn on the TV, examine the magazine covers in a grocery store, tune in to any of the main forty radio hits and you will be quickly confronted with the widespread realism of present day society. What do we esteem? Material riches and superstar. For what reason do we revere Paris Hilton, Bill Gates, Jeff Bezos. Steve Jobs? Since they have gigantic purchasing power and seen power. What shows do we watch? American Idol, Cribs, Pimp My Ride, My Sweet 16 to give some examples. Every one of these shows lift obvious utilization and blatant showcases of riches and indulgence to raised levels. We will compose a custom article test on Has our general public become exorbitantly materialistic SAT paper or on the other hand any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Our general public is a lot of like the old materialistic culture of Rome wherein riches and influence were foremost. In this manner it can't be denied that a realist soul overruns present day society. In any case, whoÃ¢â¬â¢s to state that realism isn't right? Our scholars acclaim the excellencies of realism. Our prophets incorporate the admired John Smith, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Keynes and all the horde materialistic logicians. What's more, how the counter realist rationalists have wound down in impact and been disposed of to the waste canister of history: Karl Marx, Lenin, Charles Fourrier all have been consigned to the junk store. Private enterprise is the ethos of the day-the main thrust of our reality. Simply ask the Chinese, the Russians, who have disposed of their out of date methods of reasoning in return for an increasingly sturdy, though conceivably negative realism. Realism recognizes our natural want to have more than our neighbors, to show improvement over the Jones. Since it takes into account a characteristic human need, realism will consistently give a progressively steady structure to a general public. Current society is profoundly materialistic. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s in light of the fact that realism works. It approves human needs and wants and works with manÃ¢â¬â¢s real structure as opposed to the equivalent elevated perfect or dream. Let us at that point praise our unavoidable realism and recognize its adequacy and temperance. Source: http://www.applerouth.com/blog/2009/06/01/in-acclaim of-habit composing the-sat-exposition/
Friday, August 21, 2020
Catastrophe Management can be characterized as the organization and association of duties and assets for managing all human focused parts of crises, specifically readiness, activity and recuperation so as to lessen the impact of debacles. A debacle can be depicted as an unexpected, cataclysmic occasion that seriously removed the working of a general public or network and results in material,economic and human or ecological misfortunes. We will compose a custom paper test on Catastrophe and rise the board program or then again any comparable subject just for you Request Now Debacle and rise the executives program. This exposition centers around the general thought of how to oversee adequately fiascos and rise cases on a national level in order to limit misfortunes to individuals and property. The primary target is to decrease the result of the fiasco on people,the condition and property. To adequately control events,stop acceleration and restore the influenced people or populace so as to accelerate recuperation. All together for this target to be documented a few measures must be attempted and carefully actualized. Being set up for crises is of vital significance since catastrophe can strike rapidly and all of a sudden. Four significant advances should be lined to think of an exhaustive arrangement that will handle debacles and crises adequately. As a matter of first importance is the issue of setting up fitting open arrangements and plans that either change the repercussions of catastrophes or decrease their consequences for individuals, property, and foundation. This will incorporate appropriate establishment of a coordination,organization and order structure alongside proficient able and competent staff. So as to decrease the impacts of inevitable debacles allots, for example, conveying defenselessness examinations refreshes, following the spread out construction regulations and regulations,setting up preventive human services and state funded training must be set. Every one of these measures must be incorporated in the national and territorial improvement arranging and its capability will depend on the availability of data on hazards,sudden dangers and countermeasures to be taken. These plans are set up fully expecting a debacle . The subsequent advance is to set up readiness plan so as to accomplish a sensible degree of availability to counter any crisis circumstance through projects that strengthen the specialized and administrative limit of associations, networks and governments. These measures can be portrayed as strategic readiness to manage catastrophes and can be raised by having reaction components and techniques, practice exhibitions, growing long haul and momentary methods, state funded training and introducing early admonition frameworks. Readiness can likewise appear as guaranteeing that strategical stores of water, food, drugs, hardware, and different basics are kept up in instances of national or neighborhood catastrophe. During the readiness stage, associations, people and governments,build up plans to spare lives, lessen debacle harm, and reinforce catastrophe reaction tasks. Readiness measures incorporate readiness systems; crisis works out/preparing; notice strategies; crisis correspondences hardware; clearings techniques and preparing; asset inventories; crisis staff/contact records; aggregate guide understandings; and government funded instruction. The third step is the human focused activity and it typically includes the compassionate organizations which are frequently called upon to manage moment reaction and recuperation. To have the option to act viably, these organizations must have knowledgeable pioneers, equipped work force, adequate vehicle and calculated help, appropriate interchanges, and rules for doing crises. In the event that the required arrangements have not been made, the philanthropic offices won't have the option to deal with the inevitable needs of the individuals. There is likewise the issue of reaction which targets giving momentary help to keep up life,encourage the spirit of the influenced network and upgrade wellbeing Such commitment may extend from giving explicit however constrained guide, for example, helping exiles with transport, fleeting asylum, and food, to building up transitory settlement in camps and different areas. It additionally may include basic fixes to harmed foundation. The principle focal point of this progression is to meet the essential needs of the populace until all the more enduring and economical arrangements can be built up. Ashman, John. (1995. ). The last phase of the catastrophe the board plan is the recuperation stage. As the crisis is brought under sensible levels, the influenced populace is striking of setting out on an expanding number of exercises focused at reestablishing their lives and the foundation that encourages them. There is no specific point where moment alleviation changes into recuperation and afterward into long haul tolerable turn of events. There will be various open doors during the recuperation time frame to upgrade expectation and increment status, therefore decreasing defenselessness. In a perfect world, there ought to be a smooth change over from recuperation to on-going turn of events. Recuperation exercises go on until all frameworks are back to regularity or better. Recuperation plans, both long and present moment, incorporate returning urgent life-emotionally supportive networks to insignificant working guidelines; semi-perpetual lodging; open data; sufficient wellbeing and security training; revamping; directing projects; and monetary impact contemplates. Data assets and administrations incorporate information assortment and audit identified with remaking, and documentations of exercises procured. Ashman, John.(1995. )Feinstein, R. (1989/90, 5(1) ). The limit of human asset engaged with a catastrophe the board program particularly on a national level can not be measured. There are various partners that are included and should be coordinated for it to be a triumph, for example, choice makers,policy creators, experts ,directors, (designers, specialists and others at different levels) monetary establishments (banks,house financing foundations, protection,) and NGOs and willful associations. The equivalent applies to budgetary and material assets which are huge. On account of funds proficient bookkeepers ought to be included with the goal that they can unmistakably assess th conceivable degree of money related harm came about by various sorts of catastrophes including the confirmation of appraisals and valuation of fiasco influenced resources. They assess the various alternatives of adapting to catastrophe from the money related point of view and exhort, devise and assess various methodology for guaranteeing that assets would be accessible for debacle relief at the opportune time and spot required. The bookkeepers should likewise exhort on elective procedures for post-catastrophe the executives and recovery with explicit respect to guaranteeing monetary security to the influenced, accessibility and appropriate utilization of budgetary assets for delivering new financial open doors and so forth. Organization of Education, Library and Media Services,(June 1996. ) The most effective method to refer to Disaster and development the executives program, Essays
Tuesday, July 7, 2020
Sexism is a term best defined by WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s as being prejudice, stereotyping and or discrimination against the opposite gender typically women. To me sexism is pointless and isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the reason why women are discriminated against, my thought is that if women think that they are being treated unfairly is because of their ability to do certain objectives. Obviously, men are considered to be workers and are expected to be the leader and the top money makers of their family, women are expected to have the capabilities of nurturing and caring so this thought of women being discriminated against makes no sense. In 2017 the Institute For WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Policy Research Conducted a study was on the median weekly earnings and gender earnings ratio for full time workers, the study showed that men made $220 more than women. Nowadays women have the same jobs as men whether its construction or an office worker thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a wage gap, this is where my opinion changes slightly. Moving into a different subject most say sexism is caused by feminism, also other causes come from the the workplace. To me sexism is portrayed on both sidesÃ¢â¬â¢ women and men, often women arenÃ¢â¬â¢t welcomed into certain environments as well as men. We can solve this problem by making equal opportunities for both genders, we should also set expectations for men and women who feel that they are being discriminated against. I personally believe that discrimination of sex isnÃ¢â¬â¢t an issue under certain circumstances, for example when a man is chosen over a female for a job in most cases the reason isnÃ¢â¬â¢t because of sex, it could be because of the ability to work, the effort or even because of comfortability. To put this into a better perspective, due to the sexual abuse controversies in the workplace, companies nowadays prefer to hire one gender or the other. This of course leads to the thought of sexism and gender discrimination. Others say protesting for equal pay, stopping Ã¢â¬Å"rape cultureÃ¢â¬ and making girls and boys feel safe to speak on their non-consensual sexual encounters. To me Ã¢â¬Å"rape cultureÃ¢â¬ and sexism are two different things and shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be compared, as Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s one thing to tell a sexist joke, quite another to run your hand up a colleagues skirt, and worseÃ¢â¬ said by The Guardians Fionola Meredith. Whilst IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never had sexist encounters and my opinion on sexism is very wrangling, it is still a big problem and we should stop it from happening. A solution to possibly fix sexism is by offering equal opportunities for everyone, but we should also set expectations for those of that opposite sex. I also believe sexism can be resolved by both genders respecting boundaries between each other, another way is by asserting ourselves into the opposite gender positions, just so we can realize whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the best fit. Sexism affected the church heavily. People of faith may even experience this as well. It is also to note that the people of faith arenÃ¢â¬â¢t welcomed to sexism and other practices. Also People Of the church sees everyone as created in the likeness of God wheatear male or female we are pure of spirit.
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Coal is a fossil fuel and is the result of altered remains of prehistoric vegetation that originally accumulated in swamps and peat bogs. The material that formed fossil fuels varied greatly over time as each layer was buried. As a result of these variations and the length of time the coal was forming, several types of coal were created. Depending upon its composition, each type of coal burns differently and releases different types of emissions. The first step of coal formation occurs when peat is transformed physically and chemically. This process is known as coalification. During the process of coalification, peat endures a plethora of changes due to bacterial decay, compaction, heat, and time. Peat deposits differ in content from one another and can contain everything from pristine plant parts such as roots, bark, spores, etc. to decayed plants, decay products, and even charcoal if the peat caught fire during accumulation. Coal is formed in anoxic swamp areas with a plethora of vegetation. In such an environment, the accumulation of plant debris exceeds the rate of bacterial decay of the debris. The bacterial decay rate is reduced because the available oxygen in organic-rich water is completely used up by the decaying process. Anaerobic (without oxygen) decay is much slower than aerobic decay. In order for the peat to turn into coal, it is necessary for the peat to be covered by sediment. The peat is compacted and as a result, much water is squeezed out during the firstShow MoreRelatedCoal Is A Fossil Fuel1555 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCoal is a fossil fuel that provides energy to be used for multiple purposes, provides many jobs, and supplies the U.S. with a strong export. People in America are unaware of what coal actually is, what it is used for, and what kind of jobs it supplies in the United States. Carbon gives coal most of its energy. Coal is made from peat, which is material that is formed from plants that have accumulated at the bottom of swampy areas. As peat is buried by sedimentary rock and sandstone, moisture is squeezedRead MoreCoal As A Fossil Fuel1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCoal is a fossil fuel and is the result of the altered remains of prehistoric vegetation that originally accumulated in swamps and peat bogs. The material that formed fossil fuels varied greatly over time as each layer was buried. As a result of these variations and the length of time the coal was forming, several types of coal were created. Depending upon its composition, each type of coal burns differently and releases different types of emissions. The first step of coal formation occurs whenRead More The Fossil Fuel Coal Essay1914 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Coal, an amazing fossil fuel Abstract Coal has had a tremendous effect on the world. It produces the most electricity when compared to other fuels. The US generates more than half of their electricity from coal. This black or brownishÃ¢â¬ black fossil fuel, formed by the energy in plants hundreds of millions of years ago, is made up of mostly carbon, hydrogen, and small traces of other elements like sulfur. Coal has four main types of categories. Mining is the method used to extract coal fromRead MoreCoal Is A Nonrenewable Fossil Fuel766 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespower plants run on the same primary fuel. With that said, I hope you carefully consider my recommendations, as they are essential in maintaining the current and future state of our country. Although using coal as our primary energy resource has minor sociopolitical and scientific complications, the strategies to address these problems and the social, political, scientific, and economic advantages greatly outweigh the setbacks. While coal is a nonrenewable fossil fuel, it will still provide our countryRead MoreFossil Fuels : Oil, Coal And Gas1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFossil Fuels: Oil, Coal and Gas Fossil fuels are essential to life on earth as we know it today. Our world would certainly be much different if it werenÃ¢â¬â¢t for such seemingly simple things such as coal, oil, and natural gas. These basic elements of life on earth may not seem like a major concern to some people until we put into perspective how they have shaped our world today. Civilizations have been built, economies have risen and crumbled, and even wars have been fought over these precious fossilRead MoreFossil Fuels Coal, Petroleum, And Natural Gas756 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFossil fuelsÃ¢â¬âcoal, petroleum (oil), and natural gas Ã¢â¬â are concentrated organic compounds found in the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s crust. They are created from the remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago in the form of concentrated biomass. According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), fossil fuels meet 81 percent of U.S. energy demand. Scattered records of the use of coal date to at least 1100 BC. By the middle Ages, small mining operations began to spread in Europe, where coalRead MoreFossil Fuels ( Oil, Coal, Natural Gas )1743 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Fossil Fuels (Oil, Coal, Natural Gas) Debbie Burrell SCI2000 Gwynedd Mercy University Abstract Fossil fuels are non-renewable sources of energy that were form billions of years ago. The three different types of fossil fuels in the world include: oil, coal and natural gas. Although each of the three types of fossil fuels are extracted differently they are all processed and used as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s primary sources of energy. Being the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s primary sources of energy, fossil fuel experienceRead MoreFossil Fuels : Coal, Oil And Natural Gas1867 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe three type of major fossil fuels are coal, oil and natural gas. These fossil fuels are considered non-renewable energy because of the length of time it will take for the natural processes to create these resources. It will take millions of years for them to form. Most of our coal was formed about 300 million years ago, when a majority of the earth was covered by steamy swamps. As the plants and the trees died, the remaining of the plants and trees sank to the bottom of the swap which accumulatedRead Mor eTypes Of Fossil Fuels : Coal, Oil And Natural Gas2944 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesThere are three major forms of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas. All three were formed many hundreds of millions of years ago before the time of the dinosaurs, which is why the name fossil fuels. The age they were formed is called the Carboniferous Period. It was part of the Paleozoic Era. Carboniferous gets its name from carbon, the basic element in coal and other fossil fuels. The Carboniferous Period occurred from about 360 to 286 million years ago. At the time, the land was covered withRead MoreThe worlds fossil fuels are running out. With the average amount of time it takes for coal to form1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe worlds fossil fuels are running out. With the average amount of time it takes for coal to form being 300 billion years, the earth can only renew them so fast. Fossil fuels, like coal and oil take the earth billions of years to reproduce so an effective alternate energy source must be explored. Fossil fuels or crude oil has been around for a long time and can be refined to form a number of products such as gas, gasoline, kerosene, gas oil or diesel. We are also running out of oil which is also
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Organisational culture can be defined as an influential and coherent collection of values and norms. It is often communicated through narratives, ancient legends and fictitious stories, the way things get accomplished in a specific organisation and the principles affecting an organisations procedures and practices towards members and consumers (Dwivedi, 2001). A Ã¢â¬ËstrongÃ¢â¬â¢ organisational culture differentiates itself from other types of cultures by, the majority of members holding the same fundamental beliefs and values as applies to the organisation. This essay seeks to critically analyse the statement- a strong organisational culture leads to higher organisational performance. It will draw on both the weaknesses and strengths of threeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, this is not always the case. Referring to culture as a unitary social control system can have negative implications, as it decreases its advantage as an analytical tool. One-culture reliance can reduc e creative and intellectual thinking on employees, restricting them from acquiring the knowledge that other people give off. When norms and values are so deeply embedded and internalised, employees then struggle to stimulate original and clever ideas of performing their job; that could eventually lead to an improved way of doing things. Saffold (1988, p. 549) states that a strong Ã¢â¬Å"culture shapes organizational strategy, but also it may prematurely restrict decision alternatives, producing severe negative effects on performanceÃ¢â¬ . Therefore it is essential that employees learn to adjust to others in order to benefit from the opportunities they bring forth, whilst refraining from any negative ramifications. Boisnier and Chatman (2002, p. 5) suggests, Ã¢â¬Å"that strong cultures can be adaptive, but cannot withstand radical changes that directly challenge their basic assumptionsÃ¢â¬ . In addition, they explain this claim by pointing out that organisations with strong cultu res are able to perform only a restricted amount of alterations because some individuals in a group may be more reluctant to change than others; because of how closely attached theyShow MoreRelatedCorporate identity16799 Words Ã |Ã 68 Pagesfoundations of a new approach to management which might be termed ``corporate marketingÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. In addition to articulating the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the attributes regarding a business identity (the umbrella label used to cover corporate identity, organisational identification and visual identity) the author outlines the characteristics of corporate marketing and introduces a new corporate marketing mix based on the mnemonic ``HEADSÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. This relates to what an organisation has, expresses, the affinitiesRead MoreNew Town Council3586 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesillustrate the process of strategy development within different organisational contexts. Both cases are based on the views of the strategy development process as seen by members of the respective top management teams. The New Town case describes how four members of the top management team view their strategy process. Both cases a reconstructed around two general themes. The process of strategy development and the organisational context in which it takes place. The two cases illustrate differencesRead MoreProcess of Operations Strategy7608 Words Ã |Ã 31 PagesReengineering, Enterprise Resource Planning and Six Sigma. They all need to be understood (particularly, the similarities and differences between them) if they are going to help with strategy or strategic implementation. Of course, none of these approaches can transform an organisation overnight, but what really matters in the long run is how these approaches help an organisation to learn from its experiences and build operations capabilities. The lecture aims to include the following. 1. Examine the backgroundRead MoreStrategic Human Resource Management72324 Words Ã |Ã 290 PagesRESOURCE MANAGEMENT Contents Unit 1 Title Introduction to Strategic Human Resource Management Introduction What is Strategy? What is Strategic HRM? How is Strategic HRM Different from Other Aspects of HRM? How Does Research Show that Strategic HRM Adds Value to an Organisation? How Does Strategic HRM Support the Management of Change? Who Holds the Responsibility for Strategic HRM? When is it Appropriate to Create a Dedicated HR Function? Vertical Integration and Human Resources Strategy Introduction WhatRead MoreOrganizational Behaviour Analysis28615 Words Ã |Ã 115 PagesORGANISATIONAL ANALYSIS: Notes and essays for the workshop to be held on 15th - 16th Novemeber 2007 at The Marriot Hotel Slough Berkshire SL3 8PT Dr. Lesley Prince, C.Psychol., AFBPsS University of Birmingham November 2007 Ã © Dr. Lesley Prince 2007. Organisational Analysis: Notes and Essays Page i Page ii Please do not attempt to eat these notes. CONTENTS Introduction to the Workshop Topics And Themes The Nature and Scope of Organisation Theory Levels of Analysis The MetaphoricalRead MoreLeadership Development42674 Words Ã |Ã 171 Pagesmanagement skills shortage?.................................................28 4.2 Management and leadership development capability, management and leadership development and organisational performance .....................................................................29 4.2.1 Management and leadership capability and organisational performance...............29 4.2.2 Management and leadership development and organisation performance.............30 4.2.3 Wider HRM and organisation performance, and managementRead MoreCase Study148348 Words Ã |Ã 594 PagesTeaching Notes for Student Work Assignments Case Study Teaching Notes 6 7 8 8 12 19 20 25 27 27 28 28 29 Chapters 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Introducing Strategy The Environment Strategic Capabilities Strategic Purpose Culture and Strategy Business Strategy Corporate Strategy and Diversification International Strategy Innovation and Entrepreneurship Mergers, Acquisitions and Alliances Evaluating Strategies Strategy Development Processes Organising for Success LeadershipRead MoreCompetitive Positioning and the Resource-Based View of the Firm10055 Words Ã |Ã 41 Pagesthe need for external market orientation to achieve competitive success. This paper reconciles the two through the concepts of competitive positioning. It develops a hierarchy of marketing resources, assets and capabilities and discusses how these can be deployed to achieve alternative competitive positions. A research agenda is proposed. KEYWORDS: Competitive positioning; the resource-based view of the firm; marketing capabilities; marketing assets; competitive advantage INTRODUCTION Two mainRead MoreIntercultural Communication21031 Words Ã |Ã 85 PagesI. INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION. FRAMEWORK ...the single greatest barrier to business success is the one erected by culture. Edward T. Hall and Mildred Reed Hall Why study Intercultural Communication? Cultural diversity and multiculturalism are the realities of everyday life for almost everyone. The growth of interdependence of people and cultures in the global society of the twenty-first century has forced us to pay more attention to intercultural issues. In order to live and functionRead MoreCoffee Culture17291 Words Ã |Ã 70 PagesHÃ ¶gskolan i Halmstad Sektionen fÃ ¶r ekonomi och teknik Europaekonomprogrammet 180 hp Changes in the coffee culture - opportunities for multinationals coffee shops? C-uppsats i FÃ ¶retagsekonomi, FÃ ¶retagsekonomi 51-60 p Slutseminarium: 2007-06-07 FÃ ¶rfattare: Almqvist Emma Hruzova Barbara Olsson Kajsa Handledare: Max Lundberg Preface and acknowledgement We would like to thank our tutor Max Lundberg at the section of business and engineering at the University of Halmstad for his support and
Palliative care is the active total care of patients whose disease is not responding to therapeutic treatment. According to Huggins and Brooks (2007), discussing and planning for the end-of-life can be a challenge for both health care provider and patient. Hospice care are one of the few specialties who have focused their efforts on end-of-life, unfortunately for other specialties there are inadequacies and obstacles in facilitating end-of-life care. Some of the barriers challenging the communication between physician and patient into the discussion of end of life issues are that physicians find it uncomfortable to discuss death and dying and want to avoid their own emotions and the emotions it may bring up in the patient and their families. Also because of the limited training and communication skills dealing with this issue, physicians fail to probe patientÃ¢â¬â¢s values and belief systems. Thus when presenting this complex subject it creates misunderstanding and confuses patients with their unclear medical jargon in attempts to describe scenarios and outcomes. We will write a custom essay sample on Providing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Generally patients want to discuss these issues with their doctors but wait for them to initiate the discussion. Some patients tend to procrastinate the issue especially if they are in good health, and others do not see the importance in advance directives because they expect their families to make decisions for them (Huggins and Brooks, 2007). The American Association of Critical Care Nurses sent out a survey to 1409 of its members on their perception of end-of-life care (Berkstrand, Callister, and Kerchhoff, 2006). 61 critical care nurses responded, 485 offered 530 suggestions for improving end-of-life care. In general the nurses desired they had more to say in the care of dying patients. They reported no consistency existed in the way patients were cared for. According to Besckstrand, Callister, and Kirchhoff (2006), patients are spared impending death only to experience a prolonged death due to advancements in diagnosis and treatments of today. The majority of critical care nurse s believe that death is a fact of life in the ICU and it should be treated with the dignity and respect it deserves. They also desired for physicians to learn to know when enough is enough to continuous aggressive treatment when there is little hope of the patient surviving. Respondents identified several obstacles in providing a good death in ICUs. Included were staffing problems and lack of time spent with the patient and their families. Communication challenges such as physicians not being realistic about the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition and prognosis. Some respondents felt that physicians see death as a personal failure and not as a part of life, thus many patients suffer needlessly. Cassel and Foley (1996) mention that many medical societies agree that modern medicine has neglected its traditional role to end-of-life issues. In September 1996, Cassel and Foley called together representatives of medical specialty societies to propose an advance in clinical policy for care at the end-of-life. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Organizations also participated in the development of the Core Principles. Together they offered a draft set of Ã¢â¬Å"Core PrinciplesÃ¢â¬ for end-of-life care and distributed these principles to representatives of a number of medical specialty societies. Core Principles for End-of-Life Care Clinical policy of care at the end of life and the professional practice it guides should: 1. Respect the dignity of both patient and caregivers; 2. Be sensitive to and respectful of the patients and familys wishes; 3. Use the most appropriate measures that are consistent with patient choices; 4. Encompass alleviation of pain and other physical symptoms; 5. Assess and manage psychological, social, and spiritual/religious problems; 6. Offer continuity (the patient should be able to continue to be cared for, if so desired, by his/her primary care and specialist providers); 7. Provide access to any therapy which may realistically be expected to improve the patients quality of life, including alternative or nontraditional treatments; 8. Provide access to palliative care and hospice care; 9. Respect the right to refuse treatment; 10. Respect the physicians professional responsibility to discontinue some treatments when appropriate, with consideration for both patient and family preferences; 11. Promote clinical and evidence-based research on providing care at the end of life. The medical societies listed below adopted the principles and or modified them to fit their specialty and individual patientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. American Medical Association Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine American Board of Hospice and Palliative Medicine American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine American Pain Society National Kidney Foundation American Academy of Pediatrics American College of Surgeons American College of Physicians American Geriatrics Society Much of the strength of American medicine lies in the strength of the specialty societies. The awareness on viewing palliative care as a specialty for patients facing end- of- life has enlightened these specialty societies to make it priority to facilitate these principles.
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
On December 02, 1823, US President James Monroe introduced a new United States policy to Congress known as the Monroe Doctrine. It has been said that the Secretary of State John Quincy Adams influenced President Monroe and was the actual brains behind the policy. The doctrine was intended to put a stop to European intervention throughout the Western Hemisphere. Then in 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt later delivered the Roosevelt Corollary giving the United States authority to intervene in the affairs of the western hemisphere's fledgling republics. So what is the reason for the Monroe Doctrine and why the addition of the Roosevelt Corollary? It dates back to around 1492 when a lot of competition was arising due to kingdoms wanting more wealth through colonies and trade routes when a group of European explorers led by Christopher Columbus voyaged across the Atlantic Ocean. The trip led the crew to the American continents in the Western Hemisphere. Although Columbus wasn?t the first person to travel from Europe to America, he is credited for finding ?The New World?. In the ?The New World?, the weather conditions were good, plenty of animals, corn (in which the Europeans knew nothing of), tobacco, and gold. Instead of compromising some kind a deal with the natives, the Europeans took over. When Europeans came over they brought diseases along with them. It is said that several natives were killed by the epidemic that consisted of measles and smallpox. But the natives that survived were made into slaves and worked on plantations or mines. The natives remained slaves over the next 300 years. Due to the French Revolution (1787-1799) and Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815), Europe?s power weakened. The natives took advantage of the battles and began an independence movement and their colonies were reestablished. Great Britain was proud that Latin America gained their independence. At the same time, Britain didn?t want to lose profits by having to have to cut off trade with Latin America. August 23, 1823, British foreign minister, George Canning, informed the United States of Latin Americas independence and proposed a deal to make a policy that would separate the ?New? and ?Old? world. But after talking it over, President Monroe ended up taking the advice of Secretary of State Adams and declined the offer. President Monroe instead created a foreign policy, The Monroe Doctrine, that prohibited Europeans from any affairs with the Western Hemisphere, or otherwise. Also, the United States would not involve themselves with any European affairs. Since the United States army and navy at the time lacked in a lot of areas, the doctrine was not taken serious internationally. Although President Monroe decided against the dual policy that Britain had offered, Britain approved of the Monroe Doctrine and unchallenged the seas as part of the Pax Britannica. Britain also created the laissez-faire free trade. The Special Relationship was a result of the Monroe Doctrine also. Due to Venezuela?s President Cipriano Castro?s enormous foreign debt problems and no intent to pay, a naval blockade known as the Venezuela Crisis of 1902 arose. President Castro thought that the United States would protect them from the Europeans based on his interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine. Instead the United States just laid back and let the intervention happen. But it did cause United States President Theodore Roosevelt to come up with the ?Roosevelt Corollary?, an addition to the Monroe Doctrine in 1904. The Roosevelt Corollary was meant to help aide the Western Hemisphere in economic affairs and stop influential spread from the Europeans. By doing so, the United States would send their military to the Western Hemisphere to intervene. The reason that the Roosevelt Corollary has so much significance is because it said the United States military could enter Western Hemisphere intervene, while the Monroe Doctrine was meant to stop Europeans from entering the Western Hemisphere.